An Explanation Of The Jacobin Standard

                            APJ MAY 1986    by TOM REICH                                                              

          When viewing a finished Jacobin in the show pen (by finished we mean every feather has been molted in or finished out), the first and absolute characteristic the bird must attain is carriage or "type". When showing, the Jacobin must carry itself with very upright and steady posture. As the basic foundation supporting the bird's elaborate feather structure, proper carriage helps amplify this development to its fullest degree. Within the process of stretching, the Jacobin will slightly tighten its neck skin and the respective feather tracts therein; as it arches its neck into full reach, this flowing feather formation is drawn into a firmly blended and evenly fitted appearance throughout. This entire formation must be set in even perspective with the Jacobin's body. Ideally, if one were to draw a vertical line from the centre of the bird's foot it would pass through the middle of the rose. The pigeon should stand this erect and still with the proper show table manners while presenting its side profile to the judge. A free or natural show bird will exhibit this demanding conformation with case (the bird's own natural posture) and little or no coaxing by the judge is required. A Jacobin should never resort to crouching or squatting, nor should the bird be given to over- show; that is, a given tendency to cast its head and body in such a backward motion so as to inadvertently stumble over its long flights. Rather, the Jacobin possessing proper type is a proud and natural, easy shower, alert and attentive, eagerly displaying its feather forma- tion high and fully extended to its best fullness of outline.


 The standard stresses that the Jacobin's body must possess an overall slim, contoured appearance, that when viewed from whichever angle, a sleek, slender effect will continue throughout. The body should gradually taper in from the Jacobin's breast, down through its tall; never suggesting a cobby nor stout build. This entire composition should promote a smooth, stream- lined definition of outline. The width between the shoulder region should

Also constitute a trim. narrow breast margin while concealing both wing butts with breast plumage. Wing flights held close to the body are to be carried above the tall at all times.

When showing or stretching properly. the back will arch upward,” e" sing a slightly hollow, dipped or Concave effect. The neck is to pro- vide ample length, affording its feather formation a tall base to radiate around.

The legs of medium length should be set forward enough and slightly braced, evoking a tall, bold, confident stance and allow the Jacobin to reach effortlessly (on its tip toes) while stretching its body vertically or upward with great case. The foot might then find proper alignment parallel to the rose above it. Correct leg setting contributes this stately impression and endows the Jacobin with noble stature. Long contoured hock feathers compliment the Jacobin's attenuate conformation by lending a well dressed finish to this classic profile.




   In order to understand the entire head formation governing the ideal Jacobin's makeup, one must become familiar with the basic locations of the various feather components along with their identifying terms.

   View the Jacobin from side profile, while standing at attention. An imaginary line mightbe drawn vertically through    the center of the rose, extending past the top of the entire formation's height. The chain is that portion of feather extending forward beyond the bird's face. The formation enveloping the back is referred to as mane.

The mane and chain themselves are subdivided. This division exists from a horizontally drawn line which passes across the Jacobin's eye level. The areas above this division are phrased, the upper chain extension and the upper main extension. These two lines provide the head formation with four unequal parts.

Top feather is the amount of feather length extending upward above the Jacobin's head. So another imaginary line may be drawn across the top of the head to exemplify thern.The hood is that section of feathers located at the back of the head which curves slightly upward and forward toward the beak. Simply, the hood is the first row of feathers lying directly behind the back of the Jacobin's white mared head. It's the Jacobin's long "shell crest". All feathers be hind the hood, yet above the head are top feathers.



Within both side profiles centred between the formation's narrow whip-in region, lie the rose. Defined as that focal area where the outer- most side profile feathers originate and radiate around, each rose some- what resembles the center of a small whirlpool. The size and circumference they possess basically reflects how well the two entire side profile outlines will balance and match each other. If completely circular and set in even relationship with each other, there should exist, a happy medium of balance characterizing both sizes. The small, low pro- file "baby rose" is also of merit, providing an illusion of size and smoothness throughout the bird's side profile.

While viewed from side profile, the entire head formation appears to originate from the base of the neck, since this lowermost extension of mane and chain distinctly com- prise the shortest width across the entire formation. Both sides must be set as relatively close to each other as possible while resembling the other evenly in curve and measure in order to produce the necessary trim, tidy appearance, distinctly tapered form the body. We refer to this immediate area as the whip-in. Its effect will determine how well rounded the entire formation's appearance may display. If aligned in an even, narrow perspective here, the whip-in may then exploit an ideal foundation to base the perfect perpetuating circular sweep of outline. The remaining formation may then widen dramatically around the head, producing a completely circular finish.

From the whip-in area, the mane and chain must continually rise out- ward in opposite directions forming a solid are, further and further distant from each other, as wide as possible yet maintaining the identical and proportional outlines of the other. As the two sweeps reach the Jacobin's eye level (the widest area of the head or width formation), each side must demonstrate exceptional width of feather development (since these portions are somewhat prone to slack off here) as they begin their curve upward toward the top feather region. Both extensions gradually continue rising evenly; while toward the top feather region.  While providing their full contributions of top feather they merge together forming an arch centred as high above the head as obtainable.

This entire formation must stress balance of outline. When viewed from side profile, the entire mane, chain, and top feather shall equal and compliment each other in every respect. Both sweeps should are together perfectly, high above the head, forming a circular radius as rrefined, smooth and rotund as possible. yielding a continuous blend of feather structure characterizing cub related formation.



As the Jacobin's back faces the viewer, the mane should exhibit a thick, luxuriant density of feather fullness centered directly between the shoulder region. Ale two outer- most sides of the mane should contain this feather wealth, preventing any one side from being  , favored. This wealth of feather should neither wax nor wane during its course around the back of the Jacobin's neck, but remain full and even throughout, Ideally, this feather mass should yield one half (I/2) the entire formation's side dimension. That is, if a Jacobin's side profile width were seven (7) inches across,the mane then would be three and one half (31/2) inches thick. When viewed from side profile, this mane formation should rise sharply above the back gaining height and width while maintaining full feather density. The upper mane extension must continue rising high and full, developing into a smooth bountiful mass of top feather. The body of the mane's heavy appearance is derived from feathers stemmed from a row of feather tracts extending along the back of the Jacobin's neck. These feathers fill in the mane providing the necessary feather wealth or thickness. As they "climb" the neck from the mane's whip-in region, these feathers must constantly and steadily lengthen while blending with their increasing feather length as this wealth rises upward and outward throughout the top feather region


Radiating directly from the rose area, stay feathers will be described as the outermost feathering that en- compass the bird's immediate side profiles. Stay feathers provide a glassy smooth (outershell) feather finish apparent throughout these two side formations. The feathers them- selves must be firm and resilient, each resembling the contour line of an archery bow. They govern the heavy mass of mane and top feather wealth by keeping this feather den- sity centered evenly between the bird's shoulder region. Each stay feather when sufficiently firm and bowed, should extend upward from both side profiles, gradually curve toward each other and slightly touch the respective feather from the other side. As these two halves merge over the center region of the mane and top feather wealth, their curved, beveled ends create a tiny "seam". This fine "pencil line" extends along the length of mane and into the top feather's    extension;   apparent wherever the stay feather ends meet. lie curved. rolling effect these convex stay feathers provide, contain the feather density between their two sides, while maintaining its fullness wide and evenly centered within a smoothdgloss of feather finish.


Keeping in constant alignment with the mane, top feather is said to originate where the upper mane ex- tension curves above the Jacobin's head. The mane contributes extensively into the formation of top feather, providing a continuous blend of feather wealth vital to its formation. Top feather literally absorbs the upper mane and chain extensions with its mass, building a strong flowing dome of feather, engulfing the head within its uniform magnitude.

When viewed from above, the bulk of feather seen extending across the top of the Jacobin's head must also equal the density and width of the mane's feather wealth in every respect. StayWhen viewed from above, the bulk of feather seen extending across the top of the Jacobin's head must also equal the density and width of the mane's feather wealth in every respect. Stay feathers containing the top feather's fullness must blend with perfect alignment into the mane and chain stay feathers to form a tight, even alliance of feather out- line.

The hood consists of those feathers lying toward the back of the Jacobin's skull, directly behind hits white marked head. When viewed from front profile, this portion of top feather will resemble a shell crest, only longer. It must rise solid, firm and evenly placed, high above the head, while eextending forward toward  the beak. Its forward curving reach should extend at least above the  eye region. When viewed from above, the hood will appear as an even line of feather extending  from eye  hto eye around othe upper contour of the skull.

As the stay feathers travel along both the outermost sides of the top feather's formation and extend be- yond the hood's reach, they begin forming the upper chain extensions; viewed above the directly in front of the bird's head. The hood, seated behind this upper chain region, must rise forward, high above the head and bridge each chain side with it- self. These two stay featherocshields should support this portion of hood setting here by curving or bowing toward each other sufficiently, leaving a gap no wider than the width between the bird's two eyes. The hood itself must possess the proper feather texture,  sufficient strength or resilience to support the heavy, imposing mass of dense top feather build from directly behind. These same top feathers when ofirmly held high, curve forward enough to reach well above the hood's restraint adding a profuse fexpanse of illustrous feather fullness while blending in throughout the top of each upper chain extension, leaving this area above the head with a smooth, well rounded, solidly fitted appearance.If this development can maintain all these requirements, your Jacobin will then possess what we term, the proper "cap fit".To help better understand the overall appearance of the Jacobin's top view, curve each hand slightly and part the fingers a little. Now bring your hands together in this position touching each finger from one hand with the respective finger of the other. Also bring each wrist together and part the thumbs so you can look through. This is what the entire top view of the ideal Jacobin's mane and top feather should resemble. Your finger tips should not be pointed, rather they should curve to resemble the rounded ends of stay feathers rising from the bird's two sides. Your wrists will symbolize each rose and the space between each hand will demonstrate the Jacobin's feather wealth or thickness. When viewing a Jacobin’s mane and top formation from above, stay feathering from the bird's two roses should not rise or extend straight up, leaving the Jacobin's sides with a flat appearance. Rather, these stay feathers should be so curved or bowed, and the two sides so uniform, that the roses cannot be visible from this view point. The tips of the stay feathers also properly curved will compliment the immediate top of the mane, hood and top feather with a smooth, well-rounded appearance . We refer to this effect as "roll in", and should prevail evenly throughout the entirety of these formations.   


Viewing the Jacobin's side profile. The entire chain extension should in size and length duplicate the same full reaching outline offered by the mane's structure Producing a full compliment of "twin" outlines.

These two major formations must promote a complete blending balance of outline throughout, corresponding precisely with each other while demonstrating outstanding total width and height.Stay feathers radiating along the immediate outsides of the top feather's formation from each separate chain side as they curve outward high above the bird's face. While standing parallel to each other, each side contributes the same solid feather length, unison with the top feather's reach. This high development must gradually curve around the bird's front, shadowing its head and beak within its smooth, high enclosure, leaving a gap no wider than the space between the Jacobin's own eyes. Evenly, the two chain sides draw closer together, closing this gap just below the bird's beak line and remaining so while centered perfectly even down the middle region of the neck.

 As this sweep tapers closer to the neck, an even, narrow perspective of whip-in must complete the formation with a distinct, very trim fitted appearance, finely matched with the lower mane's extension.Stay feathers compose the total content of chain plumage; their presence exists throughout the entire chain formation. These feathers should bow or curve outward from the rose and circularly radiate throughout the chain in the same general fashion as the mane's stay feathers.

The noted difference how- ever, is the amount of stay feathers composing the chain. Their presence exists throughout the outermost side of each chain. The remaining stay Feathers composing and adjoining the inner lining, should possess a high degree of feather density, providing fullness and feather wealth to' the chain. These inner stay feathers are firm and somewhat dense, yet curved proportional to their outer- most counterparts. This body of feather must be obtained to provide the Jacobin's chain with fullness, yielding a smooth evenly curves, semi-thick finish. So blending are these feathers that it is difficult to distinguish one from the other. This smooth appearance explains why the color of a Jacobin is so brilliant and prominent within the chain region. The chain's stay feathers are so tightly "knitted" that when a portion is pulled back from its feather base with the judging stick, these feathers "peel" back in segments. When re- leased, these segments spring back into their original position and almost immediately blend with their other undisturbed stay feathers. A perfect feather combination must be obtained to provide a Jacobin's chain with a solid, firm, contouring appearance from above and side profile views. Each chain feather is "linked" uniformly with the other as the formation travels down the Jacobin's neck. Hence, the term chain itself is appropriated from this linking effect.


The standard's evaluation requires the presence of two clear eyes, preferably pearl or white, possessing small, well defined pupils, surrounded by even, sound colored !rises. A single bull eye penalizes the Jacobin one point. Double bull eyes are admitted in the AOC class or cut three points for lack of color.


 Color must be considered an equally important factor when regarding the standard's entire conformity. An even, lustrous shade must basically prevail throughout the entire body.Blacks must show an intensive deep glistening black, demonstrating a metallic beetle green luster, completely free of purple. This iridescence must extend throughout the wing shields, breast and leg areas. The color should not show any fading, nor provide a flat, off black or grayish impression. Some blacks are exhibited with reddish shading, basically predominent within their secondary wing feathers. This color effect is referred to as kite, (a derivative of red/yellow plus black color improvement matings). Kites are not considered true blacks and are given to the AOC class.

Reds must possess a gleaming ruby red finish, with pronounced copper feather sheen. Green tinting must be avoided. The red shade must extend evenly throughout the body. Grayish fading and ash red color must not appear anywhere along the body, save for the secondary wing flight tips.

Yellow (a dilute of red) must exploit a rich uniform color tone, thus promoting a golden pinkish feather sheen. The color must never show fading, nor be ticked with faint flecking within its plumage.

Whites should give an even, satin smooth, silvery appearance. When viewed at close range, a white should give off a scant bluish or peariescent feather sheen. Colored feathers must never accompany the white's self, labeling it an AOC.

The blue must obtain a bright, even blue color, providing a green metallic feather luster. Smokey blue appearance must not be present, nor should the forementioned ticked effect mark up the blue's color with black flecking. The blue's ultimate goal is to obtain a light pastel dam- son (damascene blue) with two thin distinct bars ending each wing shield.

The silver (blue dilute) should possess a soft, very light, even luster, promoting an overall silvery appearance. The metallic green feather sheen should be present in this color with two well defined brown bars extending along the bird's secondary flight feathers.

Dun should exhibit an intensive glistening color, presenting a green shimmer to its feather. The color should be free from purple. Red or cheekering is undesired and the dun will lose points for these faults. The Pacific Jacobin Club have adopted a color class exclusively for the dun and is judged separately from the AOC class. This is the only existing Jacobin club giving the dun this recognition that 1 know of, all other Jacobin organizations add it to the AOC class.

the AOC class is an abbreviation for any other color or class. Those colors not accepted by the Jacobin clubs are shown in this class. Mismarked birds, splashes, straws (red and yellow straws), kites, etc., are given a chance for show competition and points otherwise evaluated color are dropped, leaving the birds judged with consideration to their attributes.

As of this writing, the CJC has accepted the introduction of Almond into its standard colors. The preferred almond ground color shall express a deep buff or light brown tone, dappled with flings of blue and/or dark brown and/or black. Almonds that are heterozygous for brown or ash red will show the preferred color of light brown ,spangled with blue, black or dark  brown. Cocks will exhibit more, this spackling than hens. Homozygous almonds expressing a white ground color are pelted with black flecking.

The young almond class will prominate an all Brown base color with mostly black flecking blue, dark brown and black, free of any white. As an almond and with each successive moult ground color shall have a tendency darken and spots of blue, dark b and black will grow larger up splash effect will appear.

 Feather quality

Feather quality (the sound structure of) in itself may determine the difference between a champion and an "also ran". For without proper feather structure, a Jacobin cannot satisfy the requirements set forth by the standard. Sound feather governs the extensive conformity a show Jacobin must adhere to. The show bird's entire formation is essentially dependent on the structural strength of each individual feather; all must bind together, exhibiting at best advantage the quality of formation they individuall inhere. Feather condition alone either enhances or detracts from the bird's chances of becoming an outstanding show exhibit.

Focusing on an individual formation feather, the desired traits should employ a firm, hard quill, for without it broken mane, chain and top feathers are likely to occur. Proper feather holds a high resiliency to wear, fighting, handling, etc. The feather barbs or rays, should be set as close as possible to each other, forming a tight web contained by a sufficient quantity or number of barbuies extending along each feather filament. These hooks hold each feather ray tightly together, by catching their respective feather strands. In essence, this ideal formation should assume the basic properties for the most part of normal feather development, taking in stride the demanding feather length we impose upon it.

In review, the basic overall view of a Jacobin representing the standard should present a type show off, stretching at attention while lifting a full display of smooth, sound feather. Balanced throughout with clear, crisp. Well-defined outlines, laden full, with a heavy, evenly controlled mass of feather density.... truly a living art form.